Fatwa: # 43403
Category: Beliefs and Practices (Aq...
Country: African Country
Date: 6th October 2019

Title

Can a woman change her surname to her husband’s surname?

Question

Assalamulaykum WW

 

Respected Mufti Saheb, please advise if the attached is authentic? 

A woman cannot change her surname to her husbands surname after Marriage.

The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "Whoever claims knowingly to belong to someone other than his father will be denied Paradise." (Reported by al-Bukhaari and Muslim, Fath, no. 3982)

He also said: "Whoever claims to belong to someone other than his father, will be cursed by Allaah, the angels and all the people, and Allaah will not accept any deeds or excuses from him on the Day of Resurrection." (Reported by Muslim, may Allaah have mercy on him, in his Saheeh, no. 2433).

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

The Ahadith which have been referred to are:

عَنْ عَاصِمٍ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عُثْمَانَ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ سَعْدًا ـ وَهْوَ أَوَّلُ مَنْ رَمَى بِسَهْمٍ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ـ وَأَبَا بَكْرَةَ ـ وَكَانَ تَسَوَّرَ حِصْنَ الطَّائِفِ فِي أُنَاسٍ ـ فَجَاءَ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالاَ سَمِعْنَا النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ مَنِ ادَّعَى إِلَى غَيْرِ أَبِيهِ وَهْوَ يَعْلَمُ فَالْجَنَّةُ عَلَيْهِ حَرَامٌ ‏"‏‏.(صحيح بخاري-4327)

Translation: Narrated by Abu `’Uthman: I heard from Sa`d… and from Abu Bakra…They both said, "We heard the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) saying, " If somebody claims to be the son of somebody other than his father knowingly, he will be denied Paradise (i.e. he will not enter Paradise)."(Sahih Bukhari- 4327)

 

 عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ التَّيْمِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ خَطَبَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ فَقَالَ مَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّ عِنْدَنَا، شَيْئًا نَقْرَأُهُ إِلاَّ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَهَذِهِ الصَّحِيفَةَ ...وفيها قال النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم... وَمَنِ ادَّعَى إِلَى غَيْرِ أَبِيهِ أَوِ انْتَمَى إِلَى غَيْرِ مَوَالِيهِ فَعَلَيْهِ لَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ وَالْمَلاَئِكَةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ لاَ يَقْبَلُ اللَّهُ مِنْهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ صَرْفًا وَلاَ عَدْلاً (صحيح المسلم-1370)‏

Translation: “…and he who claims anyone else as his father besides his own father or makes one his ally other than the one (who freed him), there is a curse of Allah. that of His angels and that of the whole mankind upon him. Allah will not accept the obligatory act of the supererogatory act (as a recompense) from him.” (Sahih Muslim-1370)

Both of these Ahadith are authentic. However, the above Ahadith need to be understood in their proper context. The Ahadith do not mean that the usage or attribution of such a name, besides that of the fathers, is unlawful (Haram), rather the Shariah prohibits ascribing one’s lineage to other than one’s biological father or claiming that someone else is one’s biological father. This is unlawful because it misleads others and also involves demonstrating ungratefulness to one’s parents and denying them their fundamental parental rights.

In Shariah, a woman adopting her husband’s surname upon marriage is neither lawful nor necessary.

 

It should be understood that using surnames was not common during the time of the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam). People were generally known by the name of their father, (son of so-and-so, and daughter of so-and-so). They used to use ‘Ibn’ (son of…) and ‘Bint’ (daughter of…) after one’s name, not a surname.

 

However, in our times, the usage of family names/surnames has become prevalent. If a woman has a specific surname before marriage and chooses to substitute it with the surname of her husband, then it is not considered to be “altering one’s lineage” or “assigning one’s self to someone other than one’s father.”

 

In conclusion, it is permissible, though not necessary, for a wife to adopt her husband’s name or surname, as long as it is for the purpose of identification, and she does not intend to mislead others or absolve herself of her lineal ascription to her father.[1]

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Mudassir Benish

Student-Darul Iftaa
Houston, TX, U.S.A

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 


الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (5/ 585) [1]

 قال في الولوالجية: ولو ادعى أنه أخوه لأبويه فجحد: فإن القاضي يسأله ألك قبله ميراث تدعيه أو نفقة أو حق من الحقوق التي لا يقدر على أخذها إلا بإثبات النسب، فإن كان كذلك يقبل القاضي بينته على إثبات النسب، وإلا فلا خصومة بينهما لأنه إذا لم يدع مالا لم يدع حقا لأن الأخوة المجاورة بين الأخوين في الصلب أو الرحم، ولو ادعى أنه أبوه، وأنكر فأثبته يقبل، وكذا عكسه وإن لم يدع قبله حقا؛ لأنه لو أقر به صح فينتصب خصما، وهذا لأنه يدعي حقا فإن الابن يدعي حق الانتساب إليه، والأب يدعي وجوب الانتساب إلى نفسه شرعا، وقال - عليه الصلاة والسلام - «من انتسب إلى غير أبيه أو انتمى إلى غير مواليه فعليه لعنة الله والملائكة والناس أجمعين»

 

فتح الباري لابن حجر (12/ 55)

عن بن وهب بسنده إلى عراك أنه سمع أبا هريرة قوله لا ترغبوا عن آبائكم فمن رغب عن أبيه فهو كفر كذا للأكثر وكذا لمسلم ووقع للكشميهني فقد كفر وسيأتي في باب رجم الحبلى من الزنا في حديث عمر الطويل لا ترغبوا عن آبائكم فهو كفر بربكم قال بن بطال ليس معنى هذين الحديثين أن من اشتهر بالنسبة إلى غير أبيه أن يدخل في الوعيد كالمقداد بن الأسود وإنما المراد به من تحول عن نسبته لأبيه إلى غير أبيه عالما عامدا مختارا وكانوا في الجاهلية لا يستنكرون أن يتبنى الرجل ولد غيره ويصير الولد ينسب إلى الذي تبناه حتى نزل قوله تعالى ادعوهم لآبائهم هو أقسط عند الله وقوله سبحانه وتعالى وما جعل أدعياءكم أبناءكم فنسب كل واحد إلى أبيه الحقيقي وترك الانتساب إلى من تبناه لكن بقي بعضهم مشهورا بمن تبناه فيذكر به لقصد التعريف لا لقصد النسب الحقيقي...

 

فتح الملهم بشرح صحيح الامام المسلم (ج-3 ص-281)

قال النووي : وهذا صريح في غلظ تحريم انتماء الإنسان إلى غير أبيه ، أو انتماء العتيق إلى ولاء غير مواليه ؛ لما فيه من كفر النعمة وتضييع حقوق الإرث والولاء والعقل ، وغير ذلك ، مع ما فيه من قطيعة الرحم والعقوق

 

اپ کے مساءل اور ان کا حل (ج-7 ص-21-مکتبہ لدہیانوی)

 

 

 

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