Fatwa: # 43360
Category: Business Matters
Country:
Date: 9th October 2019

Title

Purchasing a timeshare property

Question

I am asking a question from Saudi Arabia. I need to ask about purchasing a timeshare property ownership.

Basically a company got in touch with me. This company operates under the umbrella of a larger company, Interval International, which offered me a unit in a resort in Tunisia which will be my ownership for one week per year.

So the ownership title will have the name of the property, the specified unit and the specified week. It also mentions a peak season category of the year which basically means that the availability is prioritized. (Please see conditions below) The contract also comes with other conditions/advantages.

1. The company, Interval International, which is the main network for the properties provides a gold card membership which allows member to have discounts on Hotels, Resorts, Air line tickets and others.

2. The contract also allows the member to lease the owned slot to a third party and charge rent.

3. Furthermore, the contract also allows an exchange option for a fee to occupy any other property in the network instead of the owned property for any week per year. The lease option is also available for this. Such that the member can exchange the owned slot for another property and then lease that spot and charge a higher amount and make a profit.

4. The contract also offers 12 additional weeks per year which can be utilized in any of the properties in the network at anytime of the year by paying a substantially lower amount than the market rate.

5. The 12 weeks can also be leased out to anyone by the member.

6. The lease arrangement can be made by way of a broker against a commission.

I have already entered into this transaction and paid the non refundable down payment to buy the timeshare but in case this is not Halal please advise whether I should continue to just pay off the remaining installments so I can put it up for sale or I should just pull out of all of this.

However, I would like to confirm if this arrangement is permissible by Sharia and the lease income will be Halal. My decision to continue or cancel will lie with your ruling.

Jazakallah khair

Answer

 

Respected Brother

It is pleasing to note that you are sensitive to Shari’ah compliancy in your dealings. That attitude invokes the mercy of Allah Ta’alah and barakah in your wealth.

Timeshare property ownership may fall within the following two categories:

1.     Deeded ownership

When a timeshare property is owned by deed (deeded ownership), it is considered “real” property. As such, many real estate laws are applicable to timeshare owners in the same way they are to homeowners. For instance, the owner is liable for an equal portion of the real estate taxes, which are usually added to other fees.

With deeded contracts the use of the resort is usually divided into week-long increments and are sold as real property via fractional ownership. As with any other piece of real estate, the owner may do whatever is desired: use the week, rent it, give it away, or sell the week to another prospective buyer.

2.     Right-to-use ownership

In a right-to-use ownership, a purchaser has the right to use the property in accordance with the contract, but at some point, the contract ends and all rights revert to the property owner. Thus, a right-to-use contract grants the right to use the resort for a specific number of years.


Shari`ah also recognizes a concept that comes very close to the above timesharing concepts. It can be broken down as follows:

1.     Complete possession (i.e. possession of the property and usufruct) by purchasing an undetermined share (musha’an) through a sale contract for joint benefit over successive periods. By this, it is a sale contract of an undetermined share of a property along with taking turns in benefitting from that property (muhaya’ah), and partners mutually agree on the distribution of their turns1. In this form of transaction, the conditions stipulated in a sale contract should be fulfilled. For example, the sold property is defined and each partner pays for its maintenance2. This concept is similar to “deeded ownership”.

 

2.     Incomplete possession (possession of usufruct) by leasing a share of the usufruct through an Ijarah (Leasing) contract over successive periods. It is a leasing contract for temporary possession of a share of a certain or a described property’s usufruct along with using that usufruct by turns mutually agreed on by the partners3. This agreement can change annually and will apply till the end of the leasing period. Accordingly, this contract should meet the conditions of an Ijarah contract. For example, the property and the timeline of the contract are defined, and the lessor is liable for the basic maintenance of the leased property4. This concept is similar to “right-to-use ownership”.

As for the fees, the added benefits offered by the company and the substitutability of this share with other properties, even with substitution fees, all these are permissible as long as there are no other things that are incompatible with the Shari`ah.

It is permissible to deal in a timeshare contract or leasing benefits of shares, if the conditions of sale and Ijarah contracts are fulfilled on condition there is no ambiguity in the contract that may lead to a dispute or there is no condition that is against Shari’ah. We have reviewed the terms and conditions of Interval International on purchasing timeshare property in Tunisia. The terms and conditions of the timeshare are clear and there is nothing against Shari’ah in the contract. It is permissible to purchase the timeshare in Tunisia through Interval International.

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

 

Abdullah Noorgat

 

Student Darul Ifta

 

South Africa

 

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 

1)     ثُمَّ الْمُهَايَأَةُ قَدْ تَكُونُ بِالْمَكَانِ وَقَدْ تَكُونُ بِالزَّمَانِ ..... (المبسوط للسرخسي (20/ 170)

 

(وَأَمَّا) النَّوْعُ الثَّانِي وَهُوَ الْمُهَايَئَاتُ بِالزَّمَانِ فَهُوَ أَنْ يَتَهَايَآ فِي بَيْتٍ صَغِيرٍ عَلَى أَنْ يَسْكُنَهُ هَذَا يَوْمًا، وَهَذَا يَوْمًا، أَوْ فِي عَبْدٍ وَاحِدٍ عَلَى أَنْ يَخْدُمَ هَذَا يَوْمًا وَهَذَا يَوْمًا، وَهَذَا جَائِزٌ؛ لِقَوْلِهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى {قَالَ هَذِهِ نَاقَةٌ لَهَا شِرْبٌ وَلَكُمْ شِرْبُ يَوْمٍ مَعْلُومٍ} [الشعراء: 155] أَخْبَرَ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَنْ نَبِيِّهِ سَيِّدِنَا صَالِحٍ - عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ - الْمُهَايَئَاتُ فِي الشِّرْبِ، وَلَمْ يُنْكِرْهُ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى، وَالْحَكِيمُ إذَا حَكَى عَنْ مُنْكَرٍ غَيَّرَهُ، فَدَلَّ عَلَى جَوَازِ الْمُهَايَئَاتِ بِالزَّمَانِ بِظَاهِرِ النَّصِّ، وَثَبَتَ جَوَازُ النَّوْعِ الْآخَرِ مِنْ طَرِيقِ الدَّلَالَةِ؛ لِأَنَّهَا أَشْبَهُ بِالْمُقَاسَمَةِ مِنْ النَّوْعِ الْأَوَّلِ؛ وَلِأَنَّ جَوَازَ الْمُهَايَئَاتِ بِالزَّمَانِ لِمَكَانِ حَاجَاتِ النَّاسِ، وَحَاجَتُهُمْ إلَى الْمُهَايَئَاتِ بِالْمَكَانِ أَشَدُّ؛ لِأَنَّ الْأَعْيَانَ كُلَّهَا فِي احْتِمَالِ الْمُهَايَئَاتِ بِالزَّمَانِ شَرْعٌ، سَوَاءٌ مِنْ الْأَعْيَانِ مَا لَا يَحْتَمِلُ الْمُهَايَئَاتِ بِالْمَكَانِ كَالْعَبْدِ وَالْبَيْتِ الصَّغِيرِ وَنَحْوِهِمَا، فَلَمَّا جَازَتْ تِلْكَ فَلَأَنْ تَجُوزَ هَذِهِ أَوْلَى، وَاَللَّهُ - تَعَالَى - أَعْلَمُ. (بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (7/ 32)

 

 

وَأَمَّا) الْمُهَايَئَاتُ بِالزَّمَانِ فَلِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا أَنْ يُسْكِنَ أَوْ يَسْتَخْدِمَ؛ لِمَا ذَكَرْنَا، لَكِنْ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ ذِكْرِ الْوَقْتِ مِنْ الْيَوْمِ وَالشَّهْرِ وَنَحْوِ ذَلِكَ، بِخِلَافِ الْمُهَايَأَةِ بِالْمَكَانِ أَنَّ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا وِلَايَةَ السُّكْنَى وَالِاسْتِغْلَالِ مُطْلَقًا؛ لِأَنَّ الْحَاجَةَ إلَى ذِكْرِ الْوَقْتِ لِتَصِيرَ الْمَنَافِعُ مَعْلُومَةً، وَالْمُهَايَئَاتُ بِالْمَكَانِ قِسْمَةُ مَنَافِعَ مَقْدِرَةٍ مَجْمُوعَةٍ بِالْمَكَانِ، وَمَكَانُ الْمَنْفَعَةِ مَعْلُومٌ، فَصَارَتْ الْمَنَافِعُ مَعْلُومَةً بِالْعِلْمِ بِمَكَانِهَا، فَجَازَتْ الْمُهَايَأَةُ. (بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (7/ 32)

 

(وَلَوْ تَهَايَآ فِي سُكْنَى دَارٍ) ؛ وَاحِدَةٍ يَسْكُنُ هَذَا بَعْضًا وَذَا بَعْضًا أَوْ هَذَا شَهْرًا وَذَا شَهْرًا (أَوْ دَارَيْنِ) يَسْكُنُ كُلٌّ دَارًا (أَوْ فِي خِدْمَةِ عَبْدٍ) يَخْدُمُ هَذَا يَوْمًا وَذَا يَوْمًا (أَوْ عَبْدَيْنِ) يَخْدُمُ هَذَا هَذَا وَالْآخَرُ الْآخَرَ (أَوْ فِي غَلَّةِ دَارٍ أَوْ دَارَيْنِ) كَذَلِكَ (صَحَّ) التَّهَايُؤُ فِي الْوُجُوهِ السِّتَّةِ اسْتِحْسَانًا اتِّفَاقًا

(قَوْلُهُ وَلَوْ تَهَايَآ) الْهَيْئَةُ الْحَالَةُ الظَّاهِرَةُ لِلْمُتَهَيِّئِ لِلشَّيْءِ وَالتَّهَايُؤُ تَفَاعُلٌ مِنْهَا، وَهُوَ أَنْ يَتَوَاضَعُوا عَلَى أَمْرٍ فَيَتَرَاضَوْا بِهِ وَالْمُهَايَأَةُ بِإِبْدَالِ الْهَمْزَةِ أَلِفًا لُغَةً، وَهِيَ فِي لِسَانِ الشَّرْعِ قِسْمَةُ الْمَنَافِعِ، وَإِنَّهَا جَائِزَةٌ فِي الْأَعْيَانِ الْمُشْتَرَكَةِ الَّتِي يُمْلَكُ الِانْتِفَاعُ بِهَا عَلَى بَقَاءِ عَيْنِهَا، وَتَمَامُهُ فِي شَرْحِ الْهِدَايَةِ (قَوْلُهُ يَسْكُنُ هَذَا بَعْضًا إلَخْ) أَشَارَ إلَى أَنَّ التَّهَايُؤَ قَدْ يَكُونُ فِي الزَّمَانِ وَقَدْ يَكُونُ مِنْ حَيْثُ الْمَكَانُ، وَالْأَوَّلُ مُتَعَيِّنٌ فِي الْعَبْدِ الْوَاحِدِ وَنَحْوِهِ كَالْبَيْتِ الصَّغِيرِ، وَلَوْ اخْتَلَفَا فِي التَّهَايُؤِ مِنْ حَيْثُ الزَّمَانُ وَالْمَكَانُ فِي مَحِلٍّ يَحْتَمِلُهَا يَأْمُرُ الْقَاضِي بِأَنْ يَتَّفِقَا لِأَنَّهُ فِي الْمَكَانِ أَعْدَلُ لِانْتِفَاعِ كُلٍّ فِي زَمَانٍ وَاحِدٍ وَفِي الزَّمَانِ أَكْمَلُ لِانْتِفَاعِ كُلٍّ بِالْكُلِّ، فَلَمَّا اخْتَلَفَتْ الْجِهَةُ فَلَا بُدَّ مِنْ الِاتِّفَاقِ، فَإِنْ اخْتَارَاهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ الزَّمَانُ يُقْرَعُ فِي الْبِدَايَةِ نَفْيًا لِلتُّهْمَةِ هِدَايَةٌ، وَقَيَّدَ بِالزَّمَانِ لِأَنَّ التَّسْوِيَةَ فِي الْمَكَانِ تُمْكِنُ فِي الْحَالِ بِأَنْ يَسْكُنَ هَذَا بَعْضًا وَالْآخَرُ بَعْضًا، أَمَّا الزَّمَانُ فَلَا تُمْكِنُ إلَّا بِمُضِيِّ مُدَّةِ أَحَدِهِمَا كِفَايَةٌ. (الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (6/ 269)

 

2)     وَأَمَّا شَرَائِطُ الصِّحَّةِ فَأَنْوَاعٌ: بَعْضُهَا يَعُمُّ الْبِيَاعَاتِ كُلَّهَا، وَبَعْضُهَا يَخُصُّ الْبَعْضَ دُونَ الْبَعْضِ أَمَّا الشَّرَائِطُ الْعَامَّةُ.

(فَمِنْهَا) : مَا ذَكَرْنَا مِنْ شَرَائِطِ الِانْعِقَادِ وَالنَّفَاذِ.

أَنَّ مَا لَا يَنْعَقِدُ وَلَا يَنْفُذُ الْبَيْعُ بِدُونِهِ لَا يَصِحُّ بِدُونِهِ ضَرُورَةً، إذْ الصِّحَّةُ أَمْرٌ زَائِدٌ عَلَى الِانْعِقَادِ وَالنَّفَاذِ، فَكُلُّ مَا كَانَ شَرْطَ الِانْعِقَادِ وَالنَّفَاذِ كَانَ شَرْطَ الصِّحَّةِ ضَرُورَةً، وَلَيْسَ كُلُّ مَا يَكُونُ شَرْطَ الصِّحَّةِ يَكُونُ شَرْطَ النَّفَاذِ وَالِانْعِقَادِ عِنْدَنَا فَإِنَّ الْبَيْعَ الْفَاسِدَ يَنْعَقِدُ وَيَنْفُذُ عِنْدَ اتِّصَالِ الْقَبْضِ بِهِ عِنْدَنَا وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ صَحِيحًا.

(وَمِنْهَا) أَنْ يَكُونَ الْمَبِيعُ مَعْلُومًا وَثَمَنُهُ مَعْلُومًا عِلْمًا يَمْنَعُ مِنْ الْمُنَازَعَةِ.

فَإِنْ كَانَ أَحَدُهُمَا مَجْهُولًا جَهَالَةً مُفْضِيَةً إلَى الْمُنَازَعَةِ فَسَدَ الْبَيْعُ، وَإِنْ كَانَ مَجْهُولًا جَهَالَةً لَا تُفْضِي إلَى الْمُنَازَعَةِ لَا يَفْسُدْ؛ لِأَنَّ الْجَهَالَةَ إذَا كَانَتْ مُفْضِيَةً إلَى الْمُنَازَعَةِ كَانَتْ مَانِعَةً مِنْ التَّسْلِيمِ وَالتَّسَلُّمِ فَلَا يَحْصُلُ مَقْصُودُ الْبَيْعِ، وَإِذَا لَمْ تَكُنْ مُفْضِيَةً إلَى الْمُنَازَعَةِ لَا تَمْنَعُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ؛ فَيَحْصُلُ الْمَقْصُودُ (بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (5/ 156)

 

3)     وَأَمَّا إذَا أَجَّرَ مِنْ رَجُلَيْنِ فَتَسْلِيمُ الْمَعْقُودِ عَلَيْهِ كَمَا أَوْجَبَهُ الْعَقْدُ مَقْدُورٌ عَلَيْهِ لِلْمُؤَاجِرِ، ثُمَّ الْمُهَايَأَةُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ تَكُونُ بَيْنَ الْمُسْتَأْجَرِينَ بِحُكْمِ مِلْكَيْهِمَا وَهُوَ نَظِيرُ الرَّاهِنِ مِنْ رَجُلَيْنِ فَهُوَ جَائِزٌ لِوُجُودِ الْمَعْقُودِ عَلَيْهِ بِاعْتِبَارِ مَا أَوْجَبَهُ الرَّاهِنُ لَهُمَا. (المبسوط للسرخسي (15/ 146)

 

4)     الإجارة: عقد على المنافع بعوض

ولا تصح حتى تكون المنافع معلومة والأجرة معلومة وما جاز أن يكون ثمنا في البيع جاز أن يكون أجرة في الإجارة

والمنافع تارة تصير معلومة بالمدة كاستئجار الدور للسكنى والأرضين للزراعة فيصح العقد على مدة معلومة أي مدة كانت وتارة تصير معلومة بالعمل (مختصر القدوري (ص: 101)

 

وَأَمَّا حُكْمُ الْإِجَارَةِ فَالْإِجَارَةُ لَا تَخْلُو: إمَّا إنْ كَانَتْ صَحِيحَةً وَإِمَّا إنْ كَانَتْ فَاسِدَةً وَإِمَّا إنْ كَانَتْ بَاطِلَةً.

أَمَّا الصَّحِيحَةُ: فَلَهَا أَحْكَامٌ، بَعْضُهَا أَصْلِيٌّ وَبَعْضُهَا مِنْ التَّوَابِعِ أَمَّا الْحُكْمُ الْأَصْلِيُّ فَالْكَلَامُ فِيهِ فِي ثَلَاثَةِ مَوَاضِعَ: فِي بَيَانِ أَصْلِ الْحُكْمِ، وَفِي بَيَانِ وَقْتِ ثُبُوتِهِ، وَفِي بَيَانِ كَيْفِيَّةِ ثُبُوتِهِ.

أَمَّا الْأَوَّلُ: فَهُوَ ثُبُوتُ الْمِلْكِ فِي الْمَنْفَعَةِ لِلْمُسْتَأْجِرِ، وَثُبُوتُ الْمِلْكِ فِي الْأُجْرَةِ الْمُسَمَّاةِ لِلْآجِرِ؛ لِأَنَّهَا عَقْدُ مُعَاوَضَةٍ إذْ هِيَ بَيْعُ الْمَنْفَعَةِ، وَالْبَيْعُ عَقْدُ مُعَاوَضَةٍ، فَيَقْتَضِي ثُبُوتَ الْمِلْكِ فِي الْعِوَضَيْنِ.

وَأَمَّا وَقْتُ ثُبُوتِهِ فَالْعَقْدُ لَا يَخْلُو إمَّا إنْ كَانَ عُقِدَ مُطْلَقًا عَنْ شَرْطِ تَعْجِيلِ الْأُجْرَةِ، وَإِمَّا أَنْ شُرِطَ فِيهِ تَعْجِيلُ الْأُجْرَةِ أَوْ تَأْجِيلُهَا.

فَإِنْ عُقِدَ مُطْلَقًا؛ فَالْحُكْمُ يَثْبُتُ فِي الْعِوَضَيْنِ فِي وَقْتٍ وَاحِدٍ، فَيَثْبُتُ الْمِلْكُ لِلْمُؤَاجِرِ فِي الْأُجْرَةِ وَقْتَ ثُبُوتِ الْمِلْكِ لِلْمُسْتَأْجِرِ فِي الْمَنْفَعَةِ، وَهَذَا قَوْلُ أَصْحَابِنَا، وَقَالَ الشَّافِعِيُّ: حُكْمُ الْإِجَارَةِ الْمُطْلَقَةِ هُوَ ثُبُوتُ الْمِلْكِ فِي الْعِوَضَيْنِ عَقِيبَ الْعَقْدِ بِلَا فَصْلٍ.

وَأَمَّا كَيْفِيَّةُ ثُبُوتِ حُكْمِ الْعَقْدِ فَعِنْدَنَا: يَثْبُتُ شَيْئًا فَشَيْئًا عَلَى حَسَبِ حُدُوثِ مَحَلِّهِ، وَهُوَ الْمَنْفَعَةُ؛ لِأَنَّهَا تَحْدُثُ شَيْئًا فَشَيْئًا، وَعِنْدَهُ تُجْعَلُ الْمُدَّةُ مَوْجُودَةً تَقْدِيرًا كَأَنَّهَا أَعْيَانٌ قَائِمَةٌ وَيَثْبُتُ الْحُكْمُ فِيهَا فِي الْحَالِ، وَعَلَى هَذَا يُبْنَى أَنَّ الْأُجْرَةَ لَا تُمْلَكُ بِنَفْسِ الْعَقْدِ الْمُطْلَقِ عِنْدَنَا، وَعِنْدَهُ تُمْلَكُ (بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (4/ 201)

 

 

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