Fatwa: # 43092
Category: Jurisprudence and Rulings...
Country: African Country
Date: 9th August 2019

Title

Fishing related Masaa'il

Question

 

السلام علیکم ورحمة الله وبركاته

Hope Mufti Saheb is well.

I have a few questions. Can Mufti Saheb please answer them for me if possible.

 

{1} Is it permissible to catch fish & or hunt / slaughter game animals during the month of Ramadhaan whilst fasting with the purpose of generating an income for livelihood?

 

 {2} In another instance what is the ruling for fishing or hunting for leisure purposes {but the fish / game animal will be eaten and not wasted} during the month of Ramadan whilst fasting?

 

It appears in a Hadith that the fish seek forgiveness for the fasting person. Based on this Hadith, will it still be advised to catch fish in month of Ramadhaan.

 

 {3} If the legal bag limit of fish is x amount and a person's catch exceeded that amount. Will the extra amount be Halaal to consume?

 

 {4} If a person catches fish in the closed season, will those fish be Halaal to consume?

 

 {5} If person caught fish without a fishing licence, will it be Halaal to eat those fish ?

 

 {6} If according to the law a person is not allowed to catch a specific fish due to it being an endangered specie however, a person did catch such a fish. Can this fish be consumed?

 

 Kindly awaiting Hazrat Mufti Saheb's response.

 

جزاك الله خيراً وأحسن الجزاء.

والسلام علیکم ورحمة الله وبركاته.

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Muhtaram Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Desai (Hafizakallah)

1. In principle one may earn income whilst fasting during Ramadan. Therefore, it is permissible for one to fish and hunt in Ramadan to earn a livelihood.

2. It is permissible to do fishing as a leisure even in Ramadan with the intention of deriving benefit from the fish.[1] If the Hadith you have refer to is:

وتستغفر لهم الحيتان حتى يفطروا (الترغيب 2/91- مجمع الزوائد 3/140)

The fish seek forgiveness on their behalf until they break their fast’ (Targhib, vol. 2 pg. 91 and Majma’uz Zawaid, vol. 3 pg. 140)

This is part of a lengthy Hadith narrated by  Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah (Radiyallahu ‘anhu) in which Rasulullah (Sallā llāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) enumerated five favours of Allah upon this Ummah in Ramadan. The Hadith does not prohibit fishing. However, we wish to point out that the time in the month of Ramadan is precious. It is a month to exert ourselves in general Ibadah and specifically in the recitation of the Quran. It is not appropriate to use such valuable time in leisure fishing.

 

We have also come across the following narration:

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الأَعْلَى الصَّنْعَانِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا سَلَمَةُ بْنُ رَجَاءٍ، حَدَّثَنَا الْوَلِيدُ بْنُ جَمِيلٍ، حَدَّثَنَا الْقَاسِمُ أَبُو عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنْ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ الْبَاهِلِيِّ، قَالَ ذُكِرَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم رَجُلاَنِ أَحَدُهُمَا عَابِدٌ وَالآخَرُ عَالِمٌ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ فَضْلُ الْعَالِمِ عَلَى الْعَابِدِ كَفَضْلِي عَلَى أَدْنَاكُمْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَمَلاَئِكَتَهُ وَأَهْلَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ حَتَّى النَّمْلَةَ فِي جُحْرِهَا وَحَتَّى الْحُوتَ لَيُصَلُّونَ عَلَى مُعَلِّمِ النَّاسِ الْخَيْرَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ غَرِيبٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَمَّارٍ الْحُسَيْنَ بْنَ حُرَيْثٍ الْخُزَاعِيَّ يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ الْفُضَيْلَ بْنَ عِيَاضٍ يَقُولُ عَالِمٌ عَامِلٌ مُعَلِّمٌ يُدْعَى كَبِيرًا فِي مَلَكُوتِ السَّمَوَاتِ ‏.(جامع الترمذى حديث 2685)‏

Translation: “Abu Umamah Al-Bahili (Radhiallahu'anhu): narrates "Two men were mentioned before the Messenger of Allah (). One of them a worshiper, and the other a scholar. So, the Messenger of Allah () said: 'The superiority of the scholar over the worshiper is like my superiority over the least of you.' Then the Messenger of Allah () said: 'Indeed Allah, His Angels, the inhabitants of the heavens and the earths - even the ant in his hole, even the fish - say Salat upon the one who teaches the people to do good.” (Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Hadith 2685)

 

If the ideology you stated were to be applied to the general context of above Hadith, it would also imply that one must refrain from consuming all types of animals, vegetables and fruits.

 

3,4,5,6. It is compulsory upon a citizen to abide by those laws of the country that are not unislamic. The various laws on fishing fall in this category. However, if one catches a fish restricted by law, the fish itself will not be Haraam.[2] It is advisable to avoid violating the laws of the country and protect oneself from an embarrassing situation if convicted. Rasulullah (Sallā llāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) advised:

لا ينبغى للمؤمن ان يذل نفسه (جامع الترمذى حديث رقم 2254)

Translation: “It does not behove a believer to humiliate himself.” (Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Hadith No.2254)

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Ahmed-Ur-Rahmaan ibn Mufti Mohammed Patel (Rahmatullah Alaih)

Student Darul Iftaa

Azaadville, Johannesburg, South Africa

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

03-12-1440|05-08-2019

 

 


فتح الباري: (ج 12 ص 752 ط دار الكتب العلمية) [1]

قال ابن حجر رحمه الله: وفيه إباحة الاصطياد للانتفاع بالصيد للأكل والبيع وكذا اللهو بشرط قصد التذكية والانتفاع ، وكرهه مالك، وخالفه الجمهور...(و بعد أسطر)... فإن لازمه وأكثر منه كره، لأنه قد يشغله عن بعض الواجبات وكثير من المندوبات وأخرج الترمذي من حديث ابن عباس رفعه: "من سكن البادية جفا، ومن اتبع الصيد غفل"

 

عمدة القاري (ج 21 ص 138 ط دار الكتب العلمية)

وقال بدر الدين العيني رحمه الله: فإن فعله بغير نية التذكية فهو حرام لأنه فساد في الأرض وإتلاف نفس عبثا وقد نهى سيدنا رسول الله عن قتل الحيوان إلا لمأكلة ونهى أيضا عن الإكثار من الصيد وروى الترمذي من حديث ابن عباس رضي الله تعالى عنهما مرفوعا من سكن البادية فقد جفا ومن اتبع الصيد فقد غفل ومن لزم السلطان افتتن

 

 [2]

 (3/ 454) شرح مختصر الطحاوي للجصاص

وكذلك الصيد إذا انكسر في أرض رجل، أو السمك إذا اصطاده من جهة لرجل، فهذا كله لآخذه؛ لأنه مباح الأصل، لم يتقدم فيه ملك لأحد وجهة وقوع الملك فيه أخذه وحيازته، فإذا ملكه: انقطع حق سائر الناس عنه، فجائز بيعه كسائر المملوكات.

 

 (13/ 12) المبسوط للسرخسي

 ولكنا نستدل بما روي عن ابن عمر وابن مسعود - رضي الله تعالى عنهما - أنهما قالا لا تبيعوا السمك في الماء فإنه غرر ثم إن كان لم يأخذه فقد باع ما ليس بمملوك له والتمليك لا يسبق الملك فهو كبيع الطير في الهواء وإن كان قد أخذه ثم أرسله فهو آبق في الماء فبيعه كبيع الآبق وأنه لا يقدر على تسليمه إلا باكتساب سبب يثبت ابتداء الملك به وهو الاصطياد

 

(6/ 193) بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع

وكذلك المروج المملوكة في حكم الكلإ على هذا، وكذلك الآجام المملوكة في حكم السمك، لأن السمك أيضا مباح الأصل لقوله تعالى - عز شأنه - {أحل لكم صيد البحر وطعامه متاعا لكم} [المائدة: 96] وقوله - عليه الصلاة والسلام - «أحلت لنا ميتتان ودمان» الحديث فلا يصير مملوكا إلا بالأخذ والاستيلاء لما بينا

 

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